Dental scaling, cleaning, and also known as oral prophylaxis is the removal of plaque and calculus from the teeth. So, what is plaque and what is calculus?
Dental plaque is a non-mineralized, thin, sticky film and mass of bacteria that grows on the teeth surfaces; it adheres to the tooth surfaces firmly and resists removal by our saliva in the mouth. These bacteria use ingredients found in our diet and saliva to grow. Plaque contains bacteria, which come in contact with a meal or snack containing sugars or starches can release acids that attack tooth. Repeated attacks can break down the enamel layer of teeth, ultimately leading to tooth decay.
Dental calculus is actually the hardened form of plaque resulting from the mineralization process in our mouth. It composed of millions of bacterial cells calcified together with calcium phosphae which comes from the saliva.